Drug Testing Terms

Breath Alcohol Concentration (BrAC): Used as a metric of alcohol intoxication for legal or medical purposes. Blood Alcohol Concentration is expressed as a percentage of ethanol in the blood in units of alcohol per volume of blood.

Chain of Custody Form: Chain of custody is the process of accountability when a urine sample is collected for drug testing. A chain of custody form provides information like who donated the specimen and who had possession of the specimen after the specimen was collected.

CLIA Waived: A CLIA Waived drug test is classified by the FDA as a test that can be used by a medical professional without the oversight of a lab director. CLIA Waived drug tests are easy to use, accurate and pose no reasonable risk of harm to the patient.

Immunoassay:  An immunoassay is a test that relies on biochemistry to measure the presence or quantify of a specific substance, the analyte, in a blood or body fluid sample.

Drug Metabolism: The biotransformation (chemical alteration) of pharmaceutical substances in the body so they can be eliminated more easily. A drug becomes inactive once it is metabolized in the liver, which is the principal site of drug metabolism.

Negative Test Result: A negative test result indicates that the concentrations in the urine sample are below the designated cut-off levels for the substances being tested.

NIDA (National Institute on Drug Abuse): A United States federal-government research institute whose mission is to “lead the Nation in bringing the power of science to bear on drug abuse and addition.”

Panel: A drug test device used for screening urine sample for common substances to determine if an individual has detectable levels of drug use.

Rapid Drug Test: A rapid drug test is a medical device that instantly detects drug use in urine or saliva.

Positive Test Result: A positive test result indicated that the concentrations in the urine sample are above the designated cut-off levels for the substances being tested. The test sample should go to a confirmation lab to confirm positive test results.

Qualitative Test Result: Test results expressed in terms of positive or negative. All rapid drug tests in the market are qualitative tests that indicate a positive or negative test result.

Quantitative Test Result: Test results that estimate the amount of drugs found in a specimen.

SAMSHA: The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration is the agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that leads public health efforts to advance the behavior health of the nation.